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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 260-261

Cost factor in carrying out the research: A case study from India

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Surgery, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, USA
4 Scientist C, VRDL Project, National Institute of Epidemiology, ICMR, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
6 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication28-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Amit Agrawal
Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2455-5568.196880

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How to cite this article:
Agrawal A, Roy N, Galwankar S, Munivenkatappa A, Mohan P R, Subbarao K. Cost factor in carrying out the research: A case study from India. Int J Acad Med 2016;2:260-1

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal A, Roy N, Galwankar S, Munivenkatappa A, Mohan P R, Subbarao K. Cost factor in carrying out the research: A case study from India. Int J Acad Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2023 Jan 29];2:260-1. Available from: https://www.ijam-web.org/text.asp?2016/2/2/260/196880

To the Editor,

Literature search is an essential step to carry out any research and with selected key words to find the relevant articles needs access to major databases. This requires a careful screening published literature in major databases, i.e., searched PubMed, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and the WHO Global Health Library with appropriate key words.[1] In an article, where the authors searched these databases and identified 72 titles, we located these titles in Google Search Engine individually and to get the access to the full-text page of the journal on publisher's website. The details included were authors of the article, title of the article, journal in which it is published, the URL of the web page where the full text is available, country of publication of the journal (India vs. abroad), whether the access to full text (either HTML or pdf) if free or paid, and if the full text of the article has paid access than the cost in the US dollars was recorded. A total number of free versus payment article was calculated and total cost to get access toward the paid article was calculated. EndNote X7® (Thomson Reuters) was used as bibliography manager and Microsoft Excel 2016® was used to collect, tabulate, and analyze the data. These 72 articles were published in 42 journals (India = 9, abroad = 33). Free access to full text was available to 35 articles and payment was required to access 37 articles. Maximum number of articles was published in Neurology India (Journal published by Neurological Society of India) and full text of all the articles was available for freely (both HTML and pdf). Full texts of all the articles published in the Indian journals were freely accessible; however, except two journals (Injury - two articles, Journal of Neurosurgery - one article) the articles which were published in foreign journals required payment to access the full text. The total cost of all the articles was 1497.05 (INR = 100680.28) US dollars (mean ± standard deviation = 40.46 ± 9.14 USD where 1 USD = 67.25 INR) [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Pie chart showing the distribution of the cost of the articles (in USD)

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Restricted access to relevant scientific information can be a major obstacle to carry out research in developing countries. Despite lower labor costs, the researchers working in the developing countries get lower absolute funding and relatively need to pay higher costs to conduct research.[2] Literature search is followed by a careful screening of the searched titles, abstracts, and access to the full text of the shortlisted articles (which fulfills the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria).[1],[3] The full text to the articles can be freely available on the Internet, or there may be a need to make a payment and get the full text. Paid full text can be accessible to the individuals through individual subscriptions or university and/or institutional subscriptions. Either method needs huge investments (either in an individual capacity or on behalf of the institute), can potentially restrict the access to the important research articles and can hamper the research process.[4] The WHO with collaborative partners has made extensive efforts (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative) to make the research available to selected countries (based on their per capita income), still most of the research may not be available to many of the researchers.[5] Although efforts have been made, and financial assistance has helped to access the research opportunities however still it has not reached universally.[6] In India, OASIS estimated the setup cost and running for an organization amounting to US$6055 (which includes the cost of one PC and 1-year management cost) to hold and distribute the institute's scholarly publications.[4] Collaborative partnership with the research community from developed countries [6] and stable and reasonable funding [2] can help partly to overcome these hurdles. However, it can be anticipated that as the required material and resources shall increase to review an area of interest, proportionally the cost to afford these resources shall also increase.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Massenburg BB, Veetil DK, Raykar NP, Agrawal A, Roy N, Gerdin M. A Systematic review of quantitative research on traumatic brain injury in India. Neurology India 2016;[In Press].  Back to cited text no. 1
Van Helden P. The cost of research in developing countries. EMBO Rep 2012;13:395.  Back to cited text no. 2
Agrawal A, Munivenkatappa A, Shukla DP, Menon GR, Alogolu R, Galwankar S, et al. Traumatic brain injury related research in India: An overview of published literature. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2016;6:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
OASIS. The Problems Faced by Research Communities in Developing Countries. Available from: http://www.openoasis.org/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D28%26Itemid%3D412. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 03; 06:35:45].  Back to cited text no. 4
WHO. Hinari Access to Research for Health Programme. Available from: http://www.who.int/hinari/en/. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 03; 06:38:45].  Back to cited text no. 5
Fathalla MF. Tapping the potential for health research in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 2004;82:722.  Back to cited text no. 6


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