Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 875
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 73-78

What's new in academic international medicine? Highlighting the importance of diversity, inclusion, and equity

1 Department of Medicine, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA, USA
2 Department of Oncology, Division of Hematology and Oncology, St. Luke's Cancer Center, Bethlehem, PA, USA
3 Department of Pediatrics, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA, USA
4 Department of Human Resources, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA, USA
5 Department of Family Medicine Residency, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA, USA
6 Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Temple Medical School, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA, USA

Date of Submission15-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance21-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elisabeth Paul
Department of Medicine, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijam.ijam_81_21

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Paul E, Wilson M, Erickson-Parsons L, Desai S, Carneiro R, Belman ND. What's new in academic international medicine? Highlighting the importance of diversity, inclusion, and equity. Int J Acad Med 2021;7:73-8

How to cite this URL:
Paul E, Wilson M, Erickson-Parsons L, Desai S, Carneiro R, Belman ND. What's new in academic international medicine? Highlighting the importance of diversity, inclusion, and equity. Int J Acad Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 17];7:73-8. Available from: https://www.ijam-web.org/text.asp?2021/7/2/73/319804

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed important stress points in both our personal and professional/organizational lives.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] Among the most affected areas and in itself, an emerging crisis is the deleterious effect of the pandemic on existing diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives.[3],[6],[7] Women and underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) have traditionally experienced formidable systemic barriers when it comes to institutional leadership and tenured positions in academic medicine.[8] Empirical evidence strongly supports this point of view, with only 21% of full professors and 15% of department chairs being women.[9] Moreover, there has only been a 1% increase in URMM faculty over the past 20 years – a figure which now stands at approximately 8%.[10] With the COVID-19 pandemic, this representation has the potential of being further threatened, with indirect evidence demonstrating a significant decline in female first-authored scholarly manuscript submissions (20% in April 2020) compared to 36% in December 2019.[7] Here, we will explore some of the most important aspects of DEI as they relate to the current state of medical academia.

  Lack of Mentorship and Sponsorship Top

Institutional leadership advocating for career advancement and identifying opportunities for junior candidates is critical in promoting DEI.[9] Various systemic biases, often difficult to perceive and deeply ingrained within the institutional culture, play a major role in women and URMM not having the opportunity to join the highest ranks in academic medicine (and other scientific fields).[11],[12],[13],[14] This, in turn, leads to fewer women and URMM available to provide mentorship and sponsorship, resulting in a deleterious cycle that is difficult to break.[13],[15],[16],[17]

  Lack of Understanding of the Difference Between Equality and EquitY Top

Equality results in everyone having the same resources.[18],[19] When diversity is considered, all faculty have a mentor who is a Caucasian male would be considered to represent equality. Equity, on the other hand, refers to everyone having the resources needed to achieve an equal outcome.[20] For example, a female faculty member collaborating with a female mentor and a URMM faculty member having access to a URMM mentor could be considered as basic representations of equity. Of course, this is not to imply that any mentor–mentee combination could not be achievable or feasible; rather, each individual should have access to the highest quality, most optimal resources required to succeed.[3],[21],[22]

  Focus on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Workplace Top

It is critical that the issues of DEI are addressed effectively in order to create a more equitable workplace for all who participate in academic medicine.[23] While addressing health disparities is the goal of many US health-care institutions, that goal will not be attainable until equity is addressed from within the medical community and across our academic institutions.[23] In addition, it is argued that the lack of diversity in health care and the health-care workforce is a reflection of similar characteristics in health inequity.[24],[25] Consequently, we propose a call to action for change as more diverse representation in academic medicine leadership positions benefits all.

  Scrutinizing Academic Medicine Top

Addressing gender in academic medicine is crucial for health promotion across all populations, and in order to do this, the issue of equity must first be analyzed. It has been estimated that between 47% and 70% of female medicine faculty have reported experiencing gender-based discrimination at work,[26] and a staggering 66% of female physicians who are mothers have reported being discriminated at work based on their gender.[27] Discrimination in this realm is displayed not only by harassment but also by lack of career advancement. Women in academic medicine may also face different barriers than men such as work-life integration and likely associated symptoms of burnout.[28] It naturally follows that teachers, mentors, and supervisors who are female and may be aware of and more attuned to such barriers would propagate more equity for female trainees in academic medicine.

  Clinical Trials and Research Top

Along those same lines, increasing female presence in academic medicine could have a positive impact on research topics, as well as the proportion of female patients enrolled in clinical trials. In the past, women patients have consistently not been included in clinical trials. Then, in 2016, the National Institutes of Health announced that women participants had to be appropriately included in all research trials, acknowledging that men and women do respond differently to treatment.[29] For instance, women typically experience worse outcomes than men after the occurrence of a heart attack. This may be attributed to a predominantly male medical field having previously included few women in research samples to study how different genders are affected by the same condition.[30],[31],[32] Similar considerations apply to underrepresented groups.[33],[34],[35],[36]

  The Minority/Cultural Tax Top

The current lack of URMM representation in academic medicine is likely exacerbating and perpetuating disparities throughout our health-care systems, producing further barriers to success for URMM health-care providers, as well as disadvantages to affected groups within the patient population.[37],[38] Many URMM providers report that they have experienced racism, microaggressions, feel excluded and isolated, miss out on critical career opportunities such as mentorship and promotions, and feel obligated to spend their time assisting the communities they represent instead of pursuing other clinical and academic roles.[39],[40] The latter is known as the “minority tax” or “cultural tax,”[10] often associated with assuming greater comparative workload than non-URMM counterparts.[41]

  Toward Greater Female Leadership Participation in Academic Medicine Top

There is no doubt of the existence of the underrepresentation of female faculty in leadership positions within medical academia – both in clinical and research realms. Despite approximately 50% of medical school enrollees being female, <25% of females are in the divisional chair and chief roles.[42] In research, more than 50% of Ph.D. students are female, yet only 21% of full professors are female and only 15% of department chairs are women.[9] In addition, women in graduate medical education experience on average, less career advancement opportunities than their male counterparts, which is a facet of institutional gender discrimination.[3],[43] In 2014, women were underrepresented in academic medicine, representing 34% of academic professors including only 21% of full professors of internal medicine.[44] Moreover, approximately 48% of women physicians have reported symptoms of burnout, while only 38% of their male counterparts have reported such symptoms.[45]

This is a recognized challenge in medicine and there have been attempts to help retain young faculty, research faculty, in the field and to build on their research and academic potential, to counteract issues facing females in this field that ultimately lead to unacceptable attrition and loss of talent. The existence of “glass ceilings” extends beyond the above considerations, permeating aspects such as unequal funding levels of NIH-sponsored grants. For example, in one study, female awardees received on average approximately $80,000 less in grant funding than male awardees.[43] In another study, the mean income of women physicians was approximately $22,000 less than income of their male counterparts.[46]

The disproportionately low percentage of females in leadership positions and within the general governing structure across our academic institutions has wide-ranging consequences. Training of rising female clinicians and scientists is impacted, with decreased number of role models and mentors. These effects can be appreciated in various secondary mechanisms of recognition and scholarly activity in female physicians. In a study evaluating female authorship in the field of oncology, results demonstrate that, while female authorship has increased over time, it has not kept up with the overall increase of female physicians in oncology.[47] Moreover, in medical oncology publications, females were less likely to be authors on clinical trials in first, second, or last position than corresponding positions on observational studies, a trend that was not seen in the fields of radiation and surgical oncology.[47] This perceived lack of productivity could then affect future employment for trainees and junior faculty, where successful, meaningful publication is valued highly, thus setting up a magnifying effect in ongoing academic pursuits. Ultimately, long-term academic positions can be affected. One study demonstrated that the highest predictor of becoming a dean at U. S. medical schools was being an Associate Dean or Departmental Chair.[48]

  Toward Greater Urmm Leadership Participation in Academic Medicine Top

Despite the growing calls by many leading medical organizations for DEI in academic medicine, the proportion of URMM faculty and students in medical schools has increased minimally.[49] URMM is also underrepresented within the US physician workforce as a whole. As an example, in 2019 minorities in the US comprised one-third of the population, contrasted with URMM making up only 10% of emergency medicine (EM) physicians in 2013 and 13% in 2017, suggesting a substantial discrepancy.[50] Yet compared to EM, URMM representation among orthopedic surgeons is much lower, with 1.7% Hispanic/Latino and 1.5% African-American faculty,[51] whereas Hispanic/Latino faculty make up 18.1% and African Americans make up 13.4% of the US population.[52],[53] In a study to identify causative factors underlying these observations, faculty were interviewed regarding their perceptions of existing barriers to diversity. Of importance, the most frequent answer, at nearly 70% was, “…(we do not have) sufficient minority faculty, which may deter applicants.[53]

Studies also show that URMM residents often report experiencing microaggression, slights, and insults based on racial prejudices,[54],[55] which in turn leads to burnout,[56] and subsequently fewer URMM participants in academic medicine over time. The minority tax also plays an important role in explaining why there may be fewer URMM represented in leadership and mentorship position in academic medicine,[57] which has an increasing negative impact on racial equity for trainees. The achievement gap, referring to a difference in academic achievement and standardized test taking between URMM and non-URMM students, is another factor contributing to racial inequity in medical education.[58] Unfortunately, this gap starts as early as preschool and has been noted to increase as a student progresses through the educational system.[59]

Several interventions have been proposed to create greater equity in academic medicine. Many of these do challenge the concept of equality and equal opportunity. In order for a minority patient population to experience equity when compared to other groups, more URMM trainees would have to be admitted into residencies, particularly in areas and disciplines with large racial disparities. In order to promote a level playing field for URMM candidates for residencies, there would need to be an increase in URMM mentors and faculty associated with those residencies. Following this train of thought, it would seem that there may be a role for quotas and a holistic approach for admission/hiring in all levels of academic medicine, ranging from medical school admission to leadership positions in academic medicine. Medical schools have used a holistic approach with regard to admission of URMM, for decades, although not without controversy. At several points in time, non-minority candidates have challenged affirmative action in medical school, with high profile supreme court cases in 1978, 2003, and most recently in 2014,[60] claiming racial considerations during admission processes to be unconstitutional and ultimately not promoting equal opportunity for all.[61] Each time the race-conscious admission policies applied at the accused institutions have been upheld by the Supreme Court, citing that the diversity of the nation should better be reflected in our physician population. Furthermore, the need for universities to maintain meritocratic standards in enrollment is often pitted against affirmative action.[62] However, there is evidence to demonstrate no increase in drop-out rates in affirmative action students and their normative peers.[62] Based on this, one could make an argument supporting similar measures to be applied when appointing program directors, faculty, and admitting candidates into particular residency programs, thus promoting equity for URMM candidates. This could be difficult to apply in practice as faculty and program director positions are far fewer in quantity and have less frequent openings than student spots, as such appointments tend to last for decades. If appointment durations for professors, deans, program directors, and faculty had preset limitations (e.g., term or duration limits), this could serve as a portal for more URMM to have opportunities to fill such positions, and the frequent changes and updates in the racial and gender makeup of faculty and leadership may better reflect the rapidly growing diversity across the nation. The challenge also lies in how equity would be ensured, and it will be important for any implementations to enhance DEI without abruptly creating or promoting new asymmetric inequities.

  The Synthesis: Toward Initiatives to Reduce Loss of Talent and Faculty Attrition Via Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Top

Attrition of female faculty in medicine is a complex issue that has overarching ramifications and is an area of active investigation in order to address this growing problem. More female mentors, faculty, and program directors may serve as role models for younger trainees and promote more longevity for female physician's professional lives. Unfortunately, it would appear that many of the challenges that female physicians face stem for inequity related to work-life integration.[63],[64] The Doris Duke Funds to Retain Clinical Scientists (FRCS) is a program to help with this issue disproportionately facing female physicians and researchers today.[65] Moreover, the Doris Duke FRCS benefits all clinical scientists, male and female alike, to support their career and research development while facing external caregiver pressures. This is similar to the inequity created by the achievement gap with regard to URMM candidates, and similar foundations and funds may be needed to fill the gap for URMM physicians and physicians in training. Institutions may also need to decrease the number of URMM faculty on committees if there is an overrepresentation of URMM faculty on committees in order to combat the “minority tax.”[57] It may be appropriate to call for a drastic makeover of academic medicine including end of tenures, limited time spans for program directors, faculty appointments, and quotas demanding that a certain percentage of faculty, program directors, deans during a given time span are female, and/or URMM. The hope then would be that what is lost in continuity and experience would be surpassed through greater DEI.

  References Top

Restauri N, Sheridan AD. Burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Intersection, impact, and interventions. J Am Coll Radiol 2020;17:921-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
Franco I, Oladeru OT, Saraf A, Liu KX, Milligan M, Zietman A, et al. Improving diversity and inclusion in the post-coronavirus disease 2019 era through a radiation oncology intensive shadowing experience (RISE). Adv Radiat Oncol 2021;6:100566.  Back to cited text no. 2
Malisch JL, Harris BN, Sherrer SM, Lewis KA, Shepherd SL, McCarthy PC, et al. Opinion: In the wake of COVID-19, academia needs new solutions to ensure gender equity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020;117:15378-81.  Back to cited text no. 3
Thakur N, Lovinsky-Desir S, Bime C, Wisnivesky JP, Celedón JC. The Structural and Social Determinants of the Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the U.S. COVID-19 Pandemic. What's Our Role? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;202:943-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
Stawicki SP, Jeanmonod R, Miller AC, Paladino L, Gaieski DF, Yaffee AQ, et al. The 2019-2020 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper. J Glob Infect Dis 2020;12:47-93.  Back to cited text no. 5
Ferguson K. COVID-19 Is Impacting Progress on Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives When Urgent Focus Is Required, New Report Finds; 2021. Available from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kirstinferguson/2020/12/08/covid-19-is-impacting-progress-on-diversity-and-inclusion-initiatives-when-urgent-focus-is-required-new-report-finds/. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 12].  Back to cited text no. 6
Woitowich NC, Jain S, Arora VM, Joffe H. COVID-19 threatens progress toward gender equity within academic medicine. Acad Med 2021;96:813-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Campbell KM, Rodríguez JE. Addressing the minority tax: Perspectives from two diversity leaders on building minority faculty success in academic medicine. Acad Med 2019;94:1854-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
Bates C, Gordon L, Travis E, Chatterjee A, Chaudron L, Fivush B, et al. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action. Acad Med 2016;91:1050-2.  Back to cited text no. 9
Rodríguez JE, Campbell KM, Pololi LH. Addressing disparities in academic medicine: What of the minority tax? BMC Med Educ 2015;15:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kang SK, Kaplan S. Working toward gender diversity and inclusion in medicine: Myths and solutions. Lancet 2019;393:579-86.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bird SR, Rhoton LA. Seeing isn't always believing: Gender, academic STEM, and women scientists' perceptions of career opportunities. Gend Soc 2021;35:422-448.  Back to cited text no. 12
Coe C, Piggott C, Davis A, Hall MN, Goodell K, Joo P, et al. Leadership pathways in academic family medicine: Focus on underrepresented minorities and women. Fam Med 2020;52:104-11.  Back to cited text no. 13
Diggs GA, Garrison-Wade DF, Estrada D, Galindo R. Smiling faces and colored spaces: The experiences of faculty of color pursing tenure in the academy. Urban Rev 2009;41:312-33.  Back to cited text no. 14
Crawford K, Smith D. The we and the us: Mentoring African American women. J Black Stud 2005;36:52-67.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kilian CM, Hukai D, McCarty CE. Building diversity in the pipeline to corporate leadership. J Manag Dev 2005;24:155-168.  Back to cited text no. 16
Méndez-Morse S. Constructing mentors: Latina educational leaders' role models and mentors. Educ Adm Q 2004;40:561-90.  Back to cited text no. 17
Grogan M. Equity/equality issues of gender, race, and class. Educ Adm Q 1999;35:518-36.  Back to cited text no. 18
Espinoza O. Solving the equity-equality conceptual dilemma: A new model for analysis of the educational process. Educ Res 2007;49:343-63.  Back to cited text no. 19
Culyer AJ, Wagstaff A. Equity and equality in health and health care. J Health Econ 1993;12:431-57.  Back to cited text no. 20
Ibrahim H, Stadler DJ, Archuleta S, Cofrancesco J Jr. Twelve tips to promote gender equity in international academic medicine. Med Teach 2018;40:962-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
Turner CSV, Gonzalez JC. Modeling Mentoring Across Race/Ethnicity and Gender: Practices to Cultivate the Next Generation of Diverse Faculty Caroline Sotello Viernes Turner, Juan Carlos González Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2015:Education - 264 pages.  Back to cited text no. 22
Smith DG. Building institutional capacity for diversity and inclusion in academic medicine. Acad Med 2012;87:1511-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
Rodriguez JE, Campbell KM, Adelson WJ. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Fam Med 2015;47:259-63.  Back to cited text no. 24
Freeman J. Diversity goals in medicine: It's time to stop talking and start walking. Fam Med 2015;47:257-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
Carr PL, Ash AS, Friedman RH, Szalacha L, Barnett RC, Palepu A, et al. Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:889-96.  Back to cited text no. 26
Adesoye T, Mangurian C, Choo EK, Girgis C, Sabry-Elnaggar H, Linos E, et al. Perceived discrimination experienced by physician mothers and desired workplace changes: A cross-sectional survey. JAMA Intern Med 2017;177:1033-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
Shanafelt TD, West CP, Sinsky C, Trockel M, Tutty M, Satele DV, et al. Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life integration in physicians and the general US working population between 2011 and 2017. Mayo Clin Proc 2019;94:1681-94.  Back to cited text no. 28
McGregor AJ. Sex Matters: How Male-Centric Medicine Endangers Women's Health and What We Can Do About It. New York, New York: Hachette Go; 2020.  Back to cited text no. 29
Stramba-Badiale M, Fox KM, Priori SG, Collins P, Daly C, Graham I, et al. Cardiovascular diseases in women: A statement from the policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2006;27:994-1005.  Back to cited text no. 30
Vidaver RM, Lafleur B, Tong C, Bradshaw R, Marts SA. Women subjects in NIH-funded clinical research literature: Lack of progress in both representation and analysis by sex. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9:495-504.  Back to cited text no. 31
Yakerson A. Women in clinical trials: A review of policy development and health equity in the Canadian context. Int J Equity Health 2019;18:56.  Back to cited text no. 32
Allen M. The dilemma for women of color in clinical trials. J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972) 1994;49:105-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
Moreno-John G, Gachie A, Fleming CM, Nápoles-Springer A, Mutran E, Manson SM, et al. Ethnic minority older adults participating in clinical research: Developing trust. J Aging Health 2004;16:93S-123S.  Back to cited text no. 34
Davidson JA, Kannel WB, Lopez-Candales A, Morales L, Moreno PR, Ovalle F, et al. Avoiding the looming Latino/Hispanic cardiovascular health crisis: A call to action. J Cardiometab Syndr 2007;2:238-43.  Back to cited text no. 35
Noah BA. The participation of underrepresented minorities in clinical research. Am J Law Med 2003;29:221-45.  Back to cited text no. 36
Bhopal K. Addressing racial inequalities in higher education: Equity, inclusion and social justice. Ethnic Racial Stud 2017;40:2293-9.  Back to cited text no. 37
Naylor LA, Wyatt-Nichol H, Brown SL. Inequality: Underrepresentation of African American Males in US Higher Education. J Public Aff Educ 2015;21:523-38.  Back to cited text no. 38
Sullivan LW. Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions, A Report of the Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce. Washington, D.C.: The Sullivan Commission; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 39
Sue DW. Micro Aggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 40
Sánchez JP, Peters L, Lee-Rey E, Strelnick H, Garrison G, Zhang K, et al. Racial and ethnic minority medical students' perceptions of and interest in careers in academic medicine. Acad Med 2013;88:1299-307.  Back to cited text no. 41
D'Armiento J, Witte SS, Dutt K, Wall M, McAllister G. Achieving women's equity in academic medicine: Challenging the standards. Lancet 2019;393:e15-6.  Back to cited text no. 42
Eloy JA, Svider PF, Kovalerchik O, Baredes S, Kalyoussef E, Chandrasekhar SS. Gender differences in successful NIH grant funding in otolaryngology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013;149:77-83.  Back to cited text no. 43
Lautenberger DM, Dandar VM, Raezer CL. The State of Women in Academic Medicine: The Pipeline and Pathways to Leadership, 2013-2014. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 44
Templeton K, Bernstein CA, Sukhera J, Nora LM, Newman C, Burstin H. Gender-Based Differences in Burnout: Issues Faced by Women Physicians. National Academy of Medicine Perspectives. 2019;5:1-16.  Back to cited text no. 45
McMurray JE, Linzer M, Konrad TR, Douglas J, Shugerman R, Nelson K. The work lives of women physicians results from the physician work life study. The SGIM Career Satisfaction Study Group. J Gen Intern Med 2000;15:372-80.  Back to cited text no. 46
Yalamanchali A, Zhang ES, Jagsi R. Trends in Female Authorship in Major Journals of 3 Oncology Disciplines, 2002-2018. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e212252.  Back to cited text no. 47
Jacobson CE, Beeler WH, Griffith KA, Flotte TR, Byington CL, Jagsi R. Common pathways to dean of medicine at US medical schools. PloS One 2021;16:e0249078.  Back to cited text no. 48
Guevara JP, Adanga E, Avakame E, Carthon MB. Minority faculty development programs and underrepresented minority faculty re presentation at US medical schools. JAMA 2013;310:2297-304.  Back to cited text no. 49
Clayborne EP, Martin DR, Goett RR, Chandrasekaran EB, McGreevy J. Diversity pipelines: The rationale to recruit and support minority physicians. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021;2:e12343.  Back to cited text no. 50
Moore T, Oreluk H. AAOS Department of Research, Quality, and Scientific Affairs. Orthopaedic Practice in the United States. Rosemont, Illinois: AAOS; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 51
U.S. Census Bureau. United States Quick Facts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 52
McDonald TC, Drake LC, Replogle WH, Graves ML, Brooks JT. Barriers to increasing diversity in orthopaedics: The residency program perspective. JBJS Open Access 2020;5:2.  Back to cited text no. 53
Amaechi O, Rodríguez J. Minority physicians are not protected by their white coats. Fam Med 2020;52:603.  Back to cited text no. 54
Sherman MD, Ricco J, Nelson SC, Nezhad SJ, Prasad S. Implicit Bias Training in a Residency Program: Aiming for Enduring Effects. Fam Med 2019;51:677-81.  Back to cited text no. 55
Hu YY, Ellis RJ, Hewitt DB, Yang AD, Cheung EO, Moskowitz JT, et al. Discrimination, abuse, harassment, and burnout in surgical residency training. N Engl J Med 2019;381:1741-52.  Back to cited text no. 56
Campbell KM. The diversity efforts disparity in academic medicine. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18:4529.  Back to cited text no. 57
Jones AC, Nichols AC, McNicholas CM, Stanford FC. Admissions is not enough: The racial achievement gap in medical education. Acad Med 2021;96:176-81.  Back to cited text no. 58
Jencks C, Phillips M. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Inst Press; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 59
Curfman GD, Drazen JM. Affirmative action in the balance. N Engl J Med 2013;368:73.  Back to cited text no. 60
Ruzycki SM, Franceschet S, Brown A. Making medical leadership more diverse. BMJ 2021;4:373.  Back to cited text no. 61
Rotem N, Yair G, Shustak E. Open the gates wider: Affirmative action and dropping out. High Educ 2021;81:551-66.  Back to cited text no. 62
Belasen AT. Women in Management: A Framework for Sustainable Work–Life Integration. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Taylor &Francis; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 63
Berheide CW, Watanabe M, Falci C, Borland E, Bates DC, Anderson-Hanley C. Gender, type of higher education institution, and faculty work-life integration in the United States. Community Work Fam 2020;6:1-20.  Back to cited text no. 64
Jagsi R, Jones RD, Griffith KA, Brady KT, Brown AJ, Davis RD, et al. An innovative program to support gender equity and success in academic medicine: Early experiences from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists. Ann Intern Med 2018;169:128-30.  Back to cited text no. 65


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Lack of Mentorsh...
Lack of Understa...
Focus on Diversi...
Scrutinizing Aca...
Clinical Trials ...
The Minority/Cul...
Toward Greater F...
Toward Greater U...
The Synthesis: T...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded164    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal