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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: (Image taken from: Michael E. Powers, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Igniting the Fire: SA Virulence Factors in the Pathogenesis of Sepsis, Published: February 13, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. ppat. 1003871). (a) Leukocytes are targeted and injured by bi-component leukocidins, phenol-soluble modulins, and α-toxin. (b) Inhibition of host complement pathways occurs through chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococci binding to the C5a receptor. (c) staphylococcal complement inhibitor-mediated blockade of C3 convertase activity. (d) Staphylococcal protein A binds to host antibodies, preventing opsonophagocytosis, and contributing to apoptotic death of B cells. (e) Coagulase A and von Willebrand factor-binding protein initiate fibrin clot formation, facilitating the formation of staphylococcal aggregates. (f) Platelet traps surround staphylococci that adhere to macrophage-like Kupffer cells in the liver sinusoid. (g) Fibronectin- binding proteins A and B (FnBPA/B) bind to integrins, enabling the tethering of SA to endothelial cells. (h) Expression of SA a -toxin (Hla) causes direct injury to the endothelium, disrupting the integrity of the endothelial barrier

Figure 1: (Image taken from: Michael E. Powers, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Igniting the Fire: SA Virulence Factors in the Pathogenesis of Sepsis, Published: February 13, 2014, <a target=https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. ppat. 1003871). (a) Leukocytes are targeted and injured by bi-component leukocidins, phenol-soluble modulins, and α-toxin. (b) Inhibition of host complement pathways occurs through chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococci binding to the C5a receptor. (c) staphylococcal complement inhibitor-mediated blockade of C3 convertase activity. (d) Staphylococcal protein A binds to host antibodies, preventing opsonophagocytosis, and contributing to apoptotic death of B cells. (e) Coagulase A and von Willebrand factor-binding protein initiate fibrin clot formation, facilitating the formation of staphylococcal aggregates. (f) Platelet traps surround staphylococci that adhere to macrophage-like Kupffer cells in the liver sinusoid. (g) Fibronectin- binding proteins A and B (FnBPA/B) bind to integrins, enabling the tethering of SA to endothelial cells. (h) Expression of SA a -toxin (Hla) causes direct injury to the endothelium, disrupting the integrity of the endothelial barrier">